BIM 指导手册

发布时间:2009-12-23 01:57:14 来源:建筑信息模型BIM网
摘要:

【ChinaBIM.com注】作为涉及建筑全生命周期的BIM应该是全世界共同奋斗的目标和需要掌握的技术,然而各个国家和地区组织又有自己某些特殊的标准,他们根据自己的情况制定出了属于自己的BIM标准和指南(比如美国GSA的

【ChinaBIM.com 注】作为涉及建筑全生命周期的BIM应该是全世界共同奋斗的目标和需要掌握的技术,然而各个国家和地区组织又有自己某些特殊的标准,他们根据自己的情况制定出了属于自己的BIM标准和指南(比如美国GSA的BIM标准,芬兰的senate等等),通过阅读这些指南,我们可以对BIM有更加深入的理解,以下提供了美国Wisconsin州的BIM指南,建筑信息模型BIM网希望能和大家一起学习研究以更好的对BIM进行掌握。欢迎留言有问题大家进行讨论。
Contents
1. Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Architects and Structural Engineers ................................................................................. 1
1.2. Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, Fire Protection, and Civil engineers. ........................ 1
1.3. Specialty Consultants. ...................................................................................................... 1
1.4. BIM Authoring Software ................................................................................................. 1
1.5. IFC Compliance ............................................................................................................... 2
1.6. Open Standards for Interoperability ................................................................................. 2
1.7. Geo-referenced model ...................................................................................................... 2
1.8. Project collaboration tools ................................................................................................ 2
2. Process ................................................................................................................................... 2
2.1. Model Quality .................................................................................................................. 2
2.2. Work Effort and Compensation Schedule ........................................................................ 3
2.3. Model Submittal ............................................................................................................... 3
3. Objectives and Application ................................................................................................... 4
3.1. Pre-Design (Conceptualization) Phase ............................................................................. 4
3.2. Schematic or Peer Review Milestone (Criteria Design) ................................................. 4
3.3. Preliminary Design (Detailed Design) Phase ................................................................... 5
3.4. Final Design Construction Documents (Implementation Documents) Phase .................. 9
3.5. Bidding (Buyout) Phase ................................................................................................... 9
3.6. Construction Phase ........................................................................................................... 9
3.7. A/E Contract Close-out .................................................................................................... 9
Page 1 of 9
Building Information Modeling (BIM)
Guidelines and Standards for Architects and Engineers
This BIM Guideline and Standard applies to DSF A/E selections advertised on or after July 1, 2009 for
the following projects:
• Required on all construction (new and addition/alteration) with total project funding of $5M or greater,
• Required on all new construction with total project funding of $2.5M or greater,
• Required on all addition/alteration construction with total project funding of $2.5M or greater that
includes new addition costs of 50% or more of total,
• Encouraged but not required on all other projects.
DSF welcomes your input and advice in the implementation of BIM. Please contribute to our feedback
forum at: http://dsfbimstandards.forumco.com/default.asp
1. Requirements
1.1. Architects and Structural Engineers shall use BIM Authoring software (see section 1.4). Building
information models shall be created that include all geometry, physical characteristics and
product data needed to describe the design and construction work. All drawings and schedules
required for assessment, review, bidding and construction shall be extractions from this model.
A/E shall follow the guidelines and requirements detailed in this document for BIM related
services. Deliverable requirements are as specified in the A/E Policy and Procedure Manual.
1.2. Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, Fire Protection, and Civil engineers shall use BIM Authoring
software or discipline specialty 3D software. Models shall be created that include all geometry,
physical characteristics and product data needed to describe the design and construction work.
Drawings and schedules required for assessment, review, bidding and construction shall be
extractions from this model. Software shall be capable of interfacing with the Architects and
Structural Engineers BIM authored software. In all cases, model building and infrastructure
systems to a level that allows the team to verify clearances, analyze conflicts/clashes and
properly coordinate the work with all other aspects of the project. A/E shall follow the
guidelines and requirements detailed in this document for BIM related services. Deliverable
requirements are as specified in the A/E Policy and Procedure Manual.
1.3. Specialty Consultants including but not limited to: Food Service Planning, Medical Planning,
Library Planning, Audiovisual/Communications, Exhibit Design, Safety and Security Planning,
Interior Design shall use BIM Authoring software or discipline specialty 3D software. Models
shall be created that include all geometry, physical characteristics and product data needed to
describe the design and construction work. Drawings and schedules required for assessment,
review, bidding and construction shall be extractions from this model. Software shall be capable
of interfacing with the Architects’ BIM authored software. In all cases, model components to a
level that allows the team to verify clearances, analyze conflicts/clashes and properly coordinate
the work with all other aspects of the project. Deliverable requirements are as specified in the
A/E Policy and Procedure Manual.
1.4. BIM Authoring Software
A/E’s required or using BIM shall use one or a combination of the following BIM Authoring
software for DSF projects.
• AutoDesk Revit Architecture, Structure and MEP
Page 2 of 9
• Bentley Architecture
• Graphisoft ArchiCAD
• Nemetschek AllPlan
• Tekla Structures
DSF will consider other software products subject to their capabilities, features and benefits to
the State. Note: other BIM tools may be used for analysis, specialty design, and other project
needs.
1.5. IFC compliance
BIM Authoring software shall be compliant with the latest release of the Industry Foundation
Classes (IFC) as certified by the buildingSMART Alliance. http://www.iai.hm.edu/how-toimplement-
ifc/certification/ifc2x3-certification-results
1.6. Open Standards for Interoperability
The State has adopted open standards for data exchange. A/E is encouraged to use products
based on or using open standards for greatest interoperability between consultants and DSF.
1.7. Geo-referenced model
A/E shall geo-reference site plans and building models to Wisconsin State GIS WTM83, NAD83
(1991) coordinate system and USGS datum.
1.8. Project collaboration tools
A/E is encouraged to use electronic project collaboration tools such as document management
and file sharing sites, reviewing tools, project communication websites, web meetings, and video
conferencing.
2. Process
2.1. Model quality
A/E shall establish and use in-house modeling quality control guidelines and exchange protocols.
This may include but not limited to:
• Use of element and component objects that embed the best practices of the firm.
• Maintenance of parametric linkages within the model at all times.
• Do not use disconnected 2D files. Extract all drawing views from your model.
• Use correct object definitions for modeling: i.e. use a table object for a table – do not “fudge
it” with slab commands. It may look right but will not be right for scheduling, analysis or
interoperability with other software.
• Practice efficient and accurate modeling, i.e. eliminate object overlap, correctly close wall
intersections, etc. The model needs to look right and be right. Inaccurately modeled items
WILL become a problem.
• Creation and adherence to A/E’s own in-house standards.
• Creation and use of BIM planning procedures.
• Use industry accepted or DSF defined nomenclature for objects and spaces.
• Use appropriate and interoperable viewing, checking, and output file formats.
• Use of model checking tools to confirm the validity and accuracy of files and adherence to
modeling standards before submission.
• Use of Open Standards and IFC compliant software.
• Where intelligent objects are not available, these items may be modeled as a “concept
object” conforming closely in length, width, height and properly located.
Page 3 of 9
2.2. Work Effort and Compensation Schedule
DSF will consider fee allocation within the stated BIM work effort limits. This decision will be
based on A/E’s BIM capabilities, scope of the project and adherence to work effort descriptions.
The following chart compares DSF project phases with alternative project phase naming
conventions proposed by the American Institute of Architects.
DSF Project Phases Alternative
Project Phases
Description of A/E BIM work effort Traditional
work effort
BIM
work effort
Pre-design
(agency work but
confirmed by A/E
during pre-contract
phase)
Conceptualization Confirms program, budget and
schedule at a high level
0 0
Peer review Criteria Design Defines the optimum design
solution meeting program, budget
and schedule.
10%
10% total
15%
15% total
Preliminary
Design
Detailed Design Facility design is fully developed,
coordinated and validated. Cost
and Schedule established with
high level of precision.
25%
35% total
30%
45% total
Final Design
(100% review)
Implementation
Documents:
Review
Detailed design is fully annotated
and graphically clarified for
accurate bidding, scheduling and
construction purposes.
40%
75% total
30%
75% total
Bid set Implementation
Documents:
Bidding
Above plus inclusion of review
into model(s)
In above In above
Bidding Buyout Clarify document intent 5%
80% total
5%
80% total
Construction Issue Implementation
Documents:
Construction
Above plus inclusion of
addendum into model(s)
In above In above
Construction Construction Maintain Implementation
model(s)
20%
100%
20%
100%
Closeout Closeout Record documents, change orders
and other appropriate close-out
submittals incorporated into the
model(s)
In above In above
2.3. Model Submittal
With submittal of closeout documentation, the A/E shall submit the final model(s) in native
application's format and validated IFC. Any future changes to, or extractions from the model(s)
will be the responsibility of the party making the changes.
A/E shall make all submittals per A/E Policy and Procedure Manual.
Page 4 of 9
3. Objectives and Application
3.1. Pre-Design (Conceptualization) Phase
3.1.1.A/E is encouraged to use electronic programming and planning tools that integrate into their
BIM Authoring software to capture early cost, schedule and program information during
this phase.
3.1.2.Topographic and Property Line Surveying
Detailed requirements of what is to be included in surveying deliverables is managed by
DSF staff in consultation with the A/E on a project-by-project basis. Surveys shall be
provided in electronic format and minimally include 3D topographic information including
paving and retaining walls. The file(s) shall be in a format that allows for importing into
the A/E’s BIM Authoring software.
All land surveys must be tied to the State’s GIS WTM83, NAD83 (1991) coordinate system
and USGS datum. The surveyor must provide electronic files that clearly define the project
site and include accurate x/y/z coordinates on all survey items. The file(s) must be in a
format that allows for importing directly into the State’s GIS system. Survey points must
‘land’ within the State’s GiS datum within the margin for error that is normal in the
industry.
3.2. Schematic or Peer Review milestone (Criteria Design)
3.2.1.A/E may use any method to begin the design process but shall be using a BIM authored or
3D model(s) by completion of this phase. All information needed to describe the schematic
design shall be graphically or alphanumerically included in and derived from these models.
DSF expects AE to use analysis tools, static images and interactive 3D to describe the
design concepts.
Deliverables are required as stated in section 4I of the A/E Policy and Procedure Manual
and as noted below.
3.2.2.Existing conditions
A/E shall model all existing conditions needed explain the extent of the construction work
for alterations and additions projects. The extent of modeling beyond the affected areas and
the level information to be included will be determined based on project needs. These
requirements may be stated in the project program or discussed during the project kickoff
meeting.
3.2.3.Comparative Cost Analysis
A/E shall extract quantity information using BIM Authoring Software and other BIM
integrated tools to support comparative costs analysis of options studied, Analysis and
options may include: building perimeter, square foot zones by cost type, exterior envelop
area, construction type, envelop materials, and/or others appropriate to the project. Outputs
shall be converted to spreadsheets and submitted as part of the design solution justification
at end of this phase.
3.2.4.Comparative energy and sustainability analysis
A/E shall use early energy modeling tools integrated with the BIM Authoring software to
develop comparative energy analysis. Variables shall include orientation, massing, form,
sun controls, wall construction, natural ventilation, area of glass, daylighting and other
factors appropriate to decision making. Modeling parameters shall be based on local
Page 5 of 9
climate data and actual site conditions. Output format shall clearly communicate and be
appropriate to project needs and submitted as part of the design solution justification at the
end of this phase.
3.2.5.Program and Space Validation
A/E shall use the BIM Authoring software or other analysis tools to compare and validate
stated program requirements with the actual design solution. The following shall be
developed automatically from the building information model:
• Assignable Areas (ASF) and Non-assignable Areas (NaSF) measured to inside face of
wall objects.
• Gross Area (GSF) measured to the outside face of wall objects.
Outputs shall be converted to the standard Space Tabulation format per A/E Policy and
Procedure Manual and submitted as part of the design solution justification at the end of this
phase.
3.2.6.Conflict Checking
A/E is encouraged to use automated conflict checking software for this phase of the work.
3.2.7. Planning Tools
A/E is encouraged to use electronic programming and planning tools that integrate into BIM
Authoring software to continue project development at this phase.
3.3. Preliminary Design (Detailed Design) Phase
3.3.1.General
A/E shall continue development of their Building Information Model (or 3D Models for
Consulting Engineers and Specialty Consultants) created in the “criteria phase”. Parametric
links shall be maintained within the models to enable automatic generation of all plans,
sections, elevations, custom details and schedules as well as 3D views.. All information
needed to describe the “detailed design” shall be graphically or alphanumerically included
in and derived from these models only, except for the Specifications.
Deliverables shall be as stated in the A/E Policy and Procedure Manual.
3.3.2.Architectural Systems
Model the following architectural elements to a level that defines the design intent and
accurately represents the design solution.
• Architectural Site plan (also see Civil Engineering section below)
Paving, grades, sidewalks, curbs, gutters, site amenities and other elements
typically included on enlarged scale site drawings in vicinity of building.
• Existing conditions to the extent required by 3.2.2.
• Demolished items to the extent required by 3.2.2.
• New interior and exterior walls including:
Doors, windows, openings,
Veneers, insulation and other vertical elements thicker than ½” (may be part of a
composite element or assembly)
Interior and exterior soffits, overhangs, sun control elements
Parapets, screening elements
Page 6 of 9
Architectural precast
• Floor, ceiling and roof systems including:
Appropriate structural items listed below if not provided by the structural
engineer and integrated into the architectural model for coordination and
document generation.
Insulation, ceiling systems, floor tiles and other horizontal elements ½” or thicker
(may be part of a composite element or assembly)
Roof, floor and ceiling slopes, if needed, shall be modeled
• Elevators, stairs, ramps including railing systems
• Casework, shelving, fireplaces and other interior architectural elements
• Furnishings, fixtures and equipment if not provided by others and integrated into the
architectural model for coordination and document generation.
Furniture
Specialty equipment (food service, medical, etc)
Model mechanical, electrical and plumbing items that require architectural space
(toilets/sinks/etc), require color/finish selection (louvers, diffusers, etc.)
or affect 3D visualization (lighting fixtures) unless provided by
engineers.
• Clearance zones for access, door swings, service space requirements, gauge reading,
and other operational clearance must be modeled as part of all equipment and checked
for conflicts with other elements.
• These items may be modeled at A/E option:
Exterior and interior wall trim
Sheet metal or other thin elements
Hardware
Finishes unless stated above
3.3.3.Structural Engineering
Model the following structural elements:
• Foundations such as:
Spread Foundations
Caisson Foundations
Pile Foundations
Mat Foundations
Load-bearing Wall Foundations
• Framing such as:
Steel Columns (with correct shape and size)
Steel Floor C-Joists
Open Web Joists (include webs for visual purposes, but need not be accurate)
Joist Girders (Model webs for visual purposes, but need not be accurate)
Steel Beams (with correct shape and size)
Precast Concrete Elements (Hollow Core Plank may be modeled as a slab)
Cast-In-Place Concrete Elements (Chamfers and embeds may or may not be
modeled)
Floors including overall extents and openings (Cast-In-Place, Precast, Wood)
Model overall thickness of wood floor systems (framing members need
not be modeled)
Wood Posts/Column
TJI Joists
Wood Trusses (include webs for visual purposes, but need not be accurate)
Page 7 of 9
Solid Wood or Laminated Beams
• Wall Types including openings
Load Bearing Walls (Masonry, Concrete, Cold-Formed Steel, Wood)
Model overall thickness of Cold-Formed Steel and Wood Stud walls
(individual members may be modeled at A/E option)
Structural Foundation Walls including brick ledges
• These items may be modeled at A/E option:
Steel reinforcing in concrete
Embeds in concrete
Connection steel (gusset plates, bolts, clip angles, etc.)
Miscellaneous Steel
angles for openings, deck bearing, etc.
channels for mechanical units
lintels (unless considered a major member)
Miscellaneous Wood
king studs
headers (unless considered a major member)
3.3.4.HVAC Systems
Model the following HVAC elements:
• Equipment
Fans, VAV’s, compressors, etc.
• Distribution
Supply, return, exhaust, relief and outside air ductwork modeled to outside face
dimension or duct insulation (whichever is greater)
Duct Joints
Diffusers, grilles, louvers, hoods, radiant panels, perimeter units, wall units
• Pipes sized at and over 2” OD, include any insulation in model
• Clearance zones for access, door swings, service space requirements, gauge reading,
and other operational clearance must be modeled as part of the HVAC equipment and
checked for conflicts with other elements.
• Exclusions
Pipe Fittings and connections
3.3.5.Electrical systems
Model the following electrical elements
• Power
Interior and exterior transformers and other equipment
Main and distribution panels and switchgear including access clearances
Feeders and conduit over 2”OD
Outlets, switches, junction boxes
• Lighting
Permanently mounted lighting fixtures (moveable, plug-in fixtures need not be
modeled as part of the electrical package)
• Clearance zones for access, door swings, service space requirements, gauge reading,
valve clearances and other operational clearance must be modeled as part of the
electrical equipment for collision checking.
3.3.6.Plumbing and Fire Protection
Model the following plumbing and fire protection elements
Page 8 of 9
• Waste and Vent
Piping sized at and over 2” OD, include any insulation in model
Roof and floor drains, leaders, sumps, grease interceptors, tanks, water
treatments and other major items.
• Supply
Piping sized at and over 2” OD, include any insulation in model
• Fixtures: sinks, toilet fixtures, water tanks, floor sinks
• Fire protections
Sprinkler lines over 2”OD
Sprinkler heads,
Stand pipes, wall hydrants, fire department connections, risers, including valve
clearances
• Clearance zones for access, service space requirements, gauge reading, valve clearances
and other operational clearance must be modeled as part of the plumbing and fire
protections system and checked for conflicts with other elements.
3.3.7.Specialty Consultants
Model the following specialty consultant elements to correct size and location.
• Equipment provided or specified by said consultants
• Rough-in connections points for power, data, communications, water service and
waste, gas, steam, or other needed utilities.
• Extent of specialty consultant modeling shall be coordinated with the prime A/E.
• Clearance zones for access, doors swings, service space requirements, controls, gauge
reading, and other operational clearance must be modeled as part of the equipment
and checked for conflicts with other elements.
3.3.8.Civil Engineering
Model the following civil engineering elements::
• Topography – 3D terrain of all sitework as designed, including retaining walls. This
model should include the site and surrounding areas that contribute to the site’s
drainage system or otherwise impact on the site. In most cases this will require that
adjacent roadways be modeled.
• Landscaping elements: planting areas, such as raised planting beds and berms, parking
islands, pools/ponds/other water features, terraces and other items not included
elsewhere in the model.
• Stormwater management structures, pump stations, fueling systems, manholes and
other major items that impact on the overall project understanding or which may
become project design constraints.
All items must be geo-referenced such that all elements can be viewed as an overlay in the
building information model or the State’s GIS system correctly positioned in the correct
location, at all times.
The A/E is encouraged to model the following items:
• Existing site conditions (other than topography listed in 3.1.2).
• Utilities – underground and overhead (except as described above).
• Sediment and erosion controls
• Trees and shrubs
• Paving, curbs, gutters, striping
• Site amenities or structures
Page 9 of 9
3.3.9.Energy modeling
Provide energy modeling and reporting per current A/E Policy and Procedure Manual.
A/E is encouraged to use the BIM model and tools which can use the model data for this
analysis, rather than manually creating the data.
3.3.10. Conflict checking
A/E shall use conflict checking software to resolve clashes between all disciplines and
specialties included on the project. Hard clashes between the various elements and soft
clashes between an element and a required clearance shall be identified and resolved prior
to submittal.
Submit the report generated by the checking software showing conflicts have been resolved.
3.3.11. Program and Space Validation
A/E shall use the methodology described in 3.2.6 above to reconfirm program.
3.3.12. Other analysis and checking tools
A/E is encouraged to analyze the design using software that interacts with the model in
order to refine daylighting, natural ventilation, acoustics, code issues and design issues.
3.3.13. Quantity Take-off and Cost Control
A/E is encouraged to use quantity take-off features of the BIM and 3D tools coupled with
unit costs to assist in construction cost control.
3.4. Final Design Construction Documents (Implementation Documents) Phase
A/E shall continue development of the BIM (or 3D Models for Consulting Engineers and
Specialty Consultants) created in the “detailed design phase”. Maintain parametric links within
the respective models to enable automatic generation of all plans, sections, elevations, custom
details, schedules and 3D views. All information needed to describe the “implementation
documents” shall be graphically or alphanumerically included in and derived from these models
only. Specifications are not required to be linked in BIM.
Deliverables shall be a stated in the A/E Policy and Procedure Manual.
3.5. Bidding (Buyout) Phase
A/E shall update the models with all addendum, accepted alternates and/or value enhancement
proposals. Republish documents and deliverable files as stated in the A/E Policy and Procedure
Manual.
3.6. Construction Phase
A/E is expected to continuously maintain and update the model(s) with changes made during
construction.
3.7. A/E Contract Close-out
A/E shall update their respective models with contractor recorded changes. Republish record
documents. Also submit full model with all needed objects and reference drawings, in original
authored software and in IFC format. Submit all per A/E Policy and Procedure Manual.
DSF welcomes your input and advice in the implementation of BIM. Please contribute to our feedback
forum at: http://dsfbimstandards.forumco.com/default.asp